Page from the Lapidario of Alfonso X

Timeline. Alfonso X el Sabio

Born Toledo, son of Fernando III and Beatrice of Swabia, a German princess.
Married Violante daughter of Jaime 1 the Conqueror of Aragon.
Alfonso inherits the kingdoms of Galicia, Castile and Leon. Commences a series of military campaigns occupying Jerez one year later.
Son of a German princess, granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, he was proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor but his claim did not prosper, being denied or delayed by successive Popes for over twenty years. To obtain money he debased the coinage and levied an arbitrary tariff thereby infuriating the burghers and peasants. His nobles rebelled against him, as did the clergy who considered his advanced ideas on freedom of religion and religious thinking as heresy.
Mudejar uprising in recently conquered Andalusia and Murcia. The revolt was only suppressed two years later with the help of his father-in-law Jaime I of Aragon.
Renounces claim to the Roman throne after a meeting with Pope Gregory X.
Death of Fernando de la Cerda, Alfonso’s brother and heir, leading to a dispute over the succession by the sons of the former and Sancho, the second son of Alfonso. Alfonso X wanted to leave the throne to his grandson but Sancho was supported by the nobility and based his claim on agnatic seniority and proximity of blood.
Unrest grows with Alfonso alienated by dissatisfied subjects and a clergy who view him as a heretic.
Outbreak of civil war leading to Alfonso accepting Sancho as his heir. Sancho and the nobles supported the Moors when his father attempted to unite the nation in a crusade but when he allied himself with the Sultan of Morocco, they denounced him as a heretic.
Enmeshed in fighting for the throne against his son Sancho – the future Sancho IV the Brave- Alfonso X died 4 April in Seville, either from a maxillofacial cancer that spread to one of his eyes or a sinusitis caused by ulcers on his face that infected an eye. Even then he was trying to exclude Sancho from the succession in his will.

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